Get direct access to the Premium Spice Simulation articles about the simulation of electronic circuits with different SPICE simulation platforms. The main goal of these articles is combining rigorous math theory with fully explained real life examples – Learn concepts first, write down formulas later.

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Designing and Simulation of Industrial PID Controllers using Microcontrollers

As already seen in a previous article we can implement PID analog controllers simply with operational amplifiers, capacitors and resistors. it’s important to know how to design the digital version of analog controllers for two main reasons: digital controllers are very compact, all the controller fits on a chip, including the A/D and the D/A converters, moreover, digital controllers are not affected by the aging of the components and don’t change their values with the temperature as analog components do. In this article we’ll see how to pass from the design of PID controllers for continuous time systems to digital controllers, how to apply the Z-transform, the equivalent of the Laplace transform but for discrete-time systems, how to identify the transfer function of a process. We’ll explain, with a step by step procedure, how to apply the theoretical knowledge learnt by examining an ISIS Proteus microcontroller based project, that uses its PWM output to control the oven’s temperature. The microcontroller has a 10 bit A/D converter. This procedure can be easily adapted with minimal adjustments to other processes to control.

– Digital Control-System Block Diagram
– Linear difference equations, Z-Transform, Inverse Z-Transform and Discrete Transfer Function.
– Sampling and A/D (Analogic to Digital) Converter
– D/A (Digital to Analogic) Converter and ZERO ORDER HOLD (ZOH) : Relationship between the Continuous Transfer Function and Discrete Transfer Function of a sampled Plant.
– Block Diagram Manipulation of Sampled Data Systems
– Methods for designing Digital Controllers, Stability
– Designing PID controllers by microcontrollers
– Transfer function Identification and PID Tuning using the Ziegler–Nichols Method.
– Practical case of a temperature control system implemented with a microcontroller PIC and simulated with ISIS Proteus: Step by step explanation of how to apply the theory learnt for implementing and simulating a PID controller.

Find Poles and Zeros of Circuit by Inspection

After reading this article, you’ll be able to determine the number of poles at first glance by inspection.Once fixed the output, you’ll also be able to determine the number of zeros by inspection and calculate the exact symbolic transfer function, the exact values of zeros and poles with simple software tool available for free. Using the SPICE analysis, we’ll verify the results found. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of poles and zeros, of a transfer function, their physical meaning, and provide useful analysis tools for analog circuit designers and control systems engineers.

Designing Industrial PID controllers using SPICE

P.I.D. controllers, (Proportional, Integrative, Derivative), nowadays are everywhere in the industrial automatic processes. A SPICE simulator, in addition to provide efficient analysis tools, gives the possibility to work in a native environment for the implementation of compensator circuits. In this article we’ll see a fairly simple graphical method for P.I.D. controller design and testing inside a SPICE environment. The controllers are implemented with operational amplifiers in PSpice.

Control System Theory using SPICE

SPICE simulation software can be a valuable tool for the analysis and design of controllers for control systems in industrial automatic processes. In this article we’ll cover the fundamentals of control theory and we’ll see how
to analyze the open loop transfer function to verify the stability of the control system using PSpice.

SPICE Modeling of tapped air cored inductors

Modeling a tapped coil is quite simple assuming the coupling factor K equal to 1 as in a auto-transformer or in an ultralinear transformer with tapped windings.In the case of a tapped air-cored inductor or solenoid, frequently used in RF applications, this simplification is not allowed. In this article we analyze a PSpice example with a 2-transistors microtransmitter which broadcasts in 88-120MHz range and uses a tank circuit oscillator. We perform a parametric analysis for evaluating the results for different tapped antenna solutions.

PSpice: Translate the OrCAD Layout Footprint libraries into the PCB Editor footprint libraries

in this article you’ll learn: how to translate the OrCAD Layout PCB footprint libraries into the PCB Editor footprint libraries from the .llb to .max format, from the .max to the .brd format to ultimately enable the user to obtain the .dra .psm and .pad libraries. where to find the documentation for viewing all the standard OrCAD Layout footprint libraries. where to search for getting other Layout footprint libraries.

PSpice: Designing a PCB for a Voltage Regulator Power Supply from the Capture Schematic

In this article you’ll learn: how to design a double sided PCB from scratch starting from the PSPice Capture schematic, how to found the commercial components available for your projects with information about their footprints, how to check if the footprints are available before deciding to draw them by yourself, the procedure to associate for each component the right footprint, tricks and tips to place and move the components on the board easily and quickly

Power Factor correction analysis using LTspice

An electrical appliance generally doesn’t behave like a pure resistive load, but rather like a reactive load. The energy source, in addition to the active power, has to provide a reactive power. This surplus of energy is not absorbed by the appliance but exchanged between the load and the source and this increases the losses due to the Joule effect. This article explains how to size a parallel capacitor to correct the power factor of an inductive load, as a single phase electrical motor. We’ll analyze this topic using LTspice as a SPICE simulator. We’ll examine both the theory and the practical method.

Importing PSpice libraries into TINA

Many distributors of electronic components make available the SPICE MODELS of their devices with the PSpice syntax. It’s very important to be able to use these resources in other types of simulators. In order to do this, in TINA we can convert the PSPice netlist with “subckt” statement in macro or use the library manager to integrate
the .lib libraries with “model” statement.

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